In order to use Android Debug Bridge (ADB) to access your Samsung Galaxy S10 phone, you need to turn on USB Debugging under the Developer Options in your phone settings.
However, the Developer Options, by default, are not enabled and do not show up as an option under your settings. In order to enable this, you have to tap 7 times on “Build number” that can be found under “Settings” –> “About phone” –> “Software information”.
Then, when you go back to the Settings screen you will see the Developer Options. When you go into it, you can enable “USB debugging”.
The screenshots below illustrate the steps.